CATARACT is the opacity of the lens. It was derived from the GREEK word ‘katarraktes’’ which means waterfall.
It is of many types but most common are congenital/ developmental and age-related.
Congenital one is due to Rubella infection or due to the formation of opaque lens fibers.
Age-related one is also known as senile cataract as it develops during old age. It is further of 2 types-
- Cortical cataract
- Nuclear cataract
- Age- after 50 years of age
- Sex- both males and females but some studies showed females are at greater risk than males
- Hereditary- if parents have cataract, more likely child will also get it in old age.
- Ultraviolet rays- UV rays from sunlight results in early onset
- Dietary factors- diet deficient in certain proteins, amino acids, vitamins
- Dehydration is also a major cause
- Smoking- due to cyanates
MECHANISM OF LOSS OF TRANSPARENCY:-
- Black spots
- Colored halos
- Deterioration of vision
- Glare in sunlight
- Image blurring
- ICCE– INTRACAPSULAR CATARACT EXTRACTION
- ECCE– EXTRACAPSULAR CATARACT EXTRACTION IT IS OF FOLLOWING TYPES-
- CONVENTIONAL TYPE
- MANUAL SMALL INCISION
- PHACOEMULSIFICATION- It is most advanced one
It is for diseases like-
- REFRACTIVE ERRORS
- RIVER BLINDNESS
Its goal is to correct vision of every INDIAN by 2020.
Under this mission, NATIONAL BLINDNESS PROGRAMME is started under which cataract surgeries are either done free or at very less cost. Camps are organizing time to time which checks your vision and corrects it by distributing free spectacles. The main motive of this programme is to correct vision. It is a centrally sponsored programme. All states take part in it.
As patients with low vision need care and they have to do extra hard work to learn, write and walk.
For learning and writing a language known as ‘BARLEY LANGUAGE’ was developed. It a language with codes and developed by a blind namedHARROW BARLEY’.
Blind ones are one of as they need full care and love.